8.

. . . , . . .

( ). 4 , . . 1/4. . . . X, . X = 2. . : 100, 201, 310, 411. ), , X, . . ) , X. ) = ^en(code(X)), ^) X , , , 1 . 堠 ) = X.

. . . X

(X = 1) = 3, (X = 2) = 1, (X = 3) = (X = 4) = -1,. . 1 .

3 4 1 1 19 3

= 4 3 + 8 !^2 8 + 8 !^2 16 = - 4 1(^2 3 1.186 /.

: 10, 210, 3110, 4111, . . , ( ). 16 1- 12 , 2- 2-, 3- 1- 4- 1-. , (1 * 12 + 2 * 2 + 3 * 1 + 3 * 1)/16 = 1.375 / . . (). , () : (() = 1) = 3/4, (() = 2) = 1/8, (() = 3) = 1/8. ,

() = 3 + 2 + 3 = = 1.375 /.

4 8 8 8

, () > .

, .

, , . , N , . , (£^ = 1), % . , , , =1 % 1^2 , N, . , , , , .

► 13

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1

3

4

5

6

0.4

0.2

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0.1

(11()

000

001

010

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111

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100

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14

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► 15

. . . ( = 2) = 1/2, = 1, 2,... . . . , .

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. . . , . , "". . . . .