10.4 Configuring the TIS FWTK

Now the fun really begins. We must teach the system to call theses new services and create the tables to control them.

I'm not going to try to re-write the TIS FWTK manual here. I will show you the setting I found worked and explain the problems I ran into and how I got around them.

There are three files that make up these controls.


Tells the system what ports a services is on.


Tells inetd what program to call when someone knocks on a service port.


To get the FWTK functioning, you should edit these files from the bottom up. Editing the services file without the inetd.conf or netperm-table file set correctly could make your system inaccessible.

The netperm-table file

This file controls who can access the services of the TIS FWTK. You should think about the traffic using the firewall from both sides. People outside your network should identify themselves before gaining access, but the people inside your network might be allowed to just pass through.

So people can identify themselves, the firewall uses a program called authsrv to keep a database of user IDs and passwords. The authentication section of the netperm-table controls where the database is keep and who can access it.

I had some trouble closing the access to this service. Note the premit-hosts line I show uses a '*' to give everyone access. The correct setting for this line is  authsrv: premit-hosts localhost if you can get it working.

# Proxy configuration table #

# Authentication server and client rules

authsrv: database /usr/local/etc/fw-authdb

authsrv: permit-hosts *

authsrv: badsleep 1200

authsrv: nobogus true

# Client Applications using the Authentication server *: authserver 114

To initialize the database, su to root, and run ./authsrv in the /var/local/etc directory to create the administrative user record. Here is a sample session.

Read the FWTK documentation to learn how to add users and groups.


# authsrv authsrv# list

authsrv# adduser admin "Auth DB admin" ok - user added initially disabled authsrv# ena admin enabled

authsrv# proto admin pass changed

authsrv# pass admin "plugh" Password changed. authsrv# superwiz admin set wizard authsrv# list

Report for users in database

user     group   longname ok?       proto last

authsrv# display admin

Report for user admin  (Auth DB admin)

Authentication protocol: password


authsrv# *D



The telnet gateway (tn-gw) controls are straight forward and the first you should set up.

In my example, I permit host from inside the private network to pass through without authenticating themselves. (permit-hosts 19961.2.* -passok) But, any other user must enter their user ID and password to use the proxy. (permit-hosts * -auth)

I also allow one other system ( to access the firewall directly without going through the firewall at all. The two inetacl-in.telnetd lines do this. I will explain how these lines are called latter.

The Telnet timeout should be keep short.

# telnet gateway rules:

tn-gw: denial-msg /usr/local/etc/tn-deny.txt

tn-gw: welcome-msg /usr/local/etc/tn-welcome.txt

tn-gw: help-msg /usr/local/etc/tn-help.txt

tn-gw: timeout 90

tn-gw: permit-hosts 192.1.2.* -passok -xok

tn-gw: permit-hosts * -auth

# Only the Administrator can telnet directly to the Firewall via Port 24 netacl-in.telnetd: permit-hosts -exec /usr/sbin/in.telnetd

The r-commands work the same way as telnet.

# rlogin gateway rules: rlogin-gw: denial-msg

/usr/local/etc/rlogin-deny.txt /usr/local/etc/rlogin-welcome.txt /usr/local/etc/rlogin-help.txt

rlogin-gw: welcome-msg rlogin-gw: help-msg rlogin-gw:        timeout 90

rlogin-gw:        permit-hosts 192.1.2.* -passok -xok rlogin-gw:        permit-hosts * -auth -xok

# Only the Administrator can telnet directly to the Firewall via Port netacl-rlogind: permit-hosts -exec /usr/libexec/rlogind -a

You shouldn't have anyone accessing your firewall directly and that includes FTP so don't put an FTP, server on you firewall.

Again, the permit-hosts line allows anyone in the protected network free access to the Internet and all others must authenticate themselves. I included logging of every file sent and received to my controls. (-log { retr stor })

The ftp timeout controls how long it will take to drop a bad connections as well as how long a connection will stay open with out activity.

ftp-gw: denial-msg /usr/local/etc/ftp-deny.txt

ftp-gw: welcome-msg /usr/local/etc/ftp-welcome.txt

ftp-gw: help-msg /usr/local/etc/ftp-help.txt

ftp-gw: timeout 300

ftp-gw: permit-hosts 192.1.2.* -log { retr stor }

ftp-gw: permit-hosts * -authall -log І retr stor }

Web, gopher and browser based ftp are contorted by the http-gw. The first two lines create a directory to store ftp and web documents as they are passing through the firewall. I make these files owned by root and put the in a directory accessible only by root.

The Web connection should be kept short. It controls how long the user will wait on a bad connections.

# www and gopher gateway rules:

http-gw: http-gw: http-gw: http-gw: http-gw: http-gw: userid directory timeout 90 default-httpd hosts





192.1.2.* -log | read write ftp }

The ssl-gw is really just a pass anything gateway. Be carefully with it. In this example I allow anyone inside the protected network to connect to any server outside the network except the addresses 127.0.0.* and 192.1.1.* and then only on ports 443 through 563. Ports 443 through 563 are known SSL ports.

# ssl gateway rules: ssl-gw: timeout 300

ssl-gw: hosts 192.1.2.* -dest  {   !127.0.0.*   !192.1.1.*  *:443:563 }

ssl-gw: deny-hosts *

Here is an example of how to use the plug-gw to allow connections to a news server. In this example I allow anyone inside the protected network to connect to only one system and only to it's news port.

The seconded line allows the news server to pass its data back to the protected network.

Because most clients expect to stay connected while the user read news, the timeout for a news server should be long.

# NetNews Pluged gateway plug-gw: timeout 3600

plug-gw: port nntp 192.1.2.* -plug-to -port nntp plug-gw:  port nntp 2 2 -plug-to 192.1.2.* -port nntp

The finger gateway is simple. Anyone inside the protected network must login first and then we allow them to use the finger program on the firewall. Anyone else just gets a message.

# Enable finger service

netacl-fingerd: permit-hosts 192.1.2.* -exec /usr/libexec/fingerd netacl-fingerd: permit-hosts * -exec /bin/cat /usr/local/etc/finger.txt

The /etc/services file

This is where it all begins. When a client connects to the firewall it connects on a known port (less then 1024). For example telnet connects on port 23. The inetd deamon hears this connection and looks up the name of these service in the /etc/services file. It then calls the program assigned to the name in the /etc/inetd.conf file.

Some of the services we are creating are not normally in the /etc/services file. You can assign some of them to any port you want. For example, I have assigned the administrator's telnet port (telnet-a) to port 24. You could assign it to port 2323 if you wished. For the administrator (YOU) to connect directly to the firewall you will need to telnet to port 24 not 23 and if you setup your netperm-table file, like I did, you will only be able to this from one system inside your protected network.

telnet-a 24/tcp

ftp-gw 21/tcp # this named changed

auth 113/tcp      ident        # User Verification

ssl-gw 443/tcp